20 December 2015

Learning Russian – the most important tips you need


After writing about my experience with learning Russian and understanding the Russian culture, I wanted give some important tips for learning Russian.

First I’ll explain about the writing system, then some interesting things to remember about Russian verbs of motion, aspects of verbs and cases.

The Russian writing system is almost parallel to the Latin alphabet. This is no surprise because both the Russian and Latin alphabets come from the Greek alphabet. There are some letters that are unique to Russian, [IЖж] and then there are two characters that are both pronounced [Шш and Щщ]. I can’t tell the difference, and I’ve never worried about it.

Start learning Russian today! You can learn from engaging content and achieve your language learning goals more efficiently!

There are some things that differentiate the Russian writing system from its Latin counterpart. Russian uses a little B flat sign [Ьь ], which softens sounds. There are some letters that look the same as Latin letters, but they are in fact pronounced differently. What looks like a P is actually an R, and since it’s very much hardwired in our minds that that’s a P, it takes a while to get over that. It takes a while, but it eventually happens.

Tips for learning Russian - www.lingq.com

So the only advice on the alphabet is to get started on it. You’re going to be able to start reading with difficulty within a few hours, and then the more you read, the better you get at it. However, as I found when I started learning Czech, it’s always easier to read in your own alphabet — always.

Tips for learning Russian - www.lingq.com

Word order is another aspect of to learning Russian, is that it takes some getting used to. Russian is very flexible and different in some ways. You can say “This is a book”, in English. The Russians don’t worry about articles, “This book.” [Это книга. You say “I read a book, the book, a book”, [я читаю книгу], but you could also say [я книгу читаю], so the word order can be kind of shifted around.

It isn’t word order you need to worry about when you want to ask a question in Russian, though. Then you have consider intonation. The words used are the same, but intonation often determines if it is a statement or a question.

These aspects of the language are minor in comparison to the three big bugbears in Russian: the cases, verbs of motion and the aspect of verbs. Everything else you can kind of get used to, but those three I’m still struggling with.


Some people don’t know what cases are. I had Latin at school and we had to decline latin noun bellum (war) as fast as possible. In Russian there are six cases. Latin has the vocative, which the Russians don’t have, although the Czechs do. With cases the concept is quite straightforward. If a noun is the subject of a sentence, “I go”, “The book is on the table”, then it’s in the nominative.

If you do something to the book, “I give the book to you”, “I give the book”, now the book is in the accusative because you’ve done something to it. If I give the book to you, I’m giving it to you, dative, donation, give, that’s the dative. Then they have a thing called the prepositional case, which is basically where something is “On the”, “At the”, “In the”, sort of like a location-type case. In that case, the noun will have a different ending. Then they have the genitive, which means to belong to something. So “Of the book” would be in the genitive. And they have a thing called the instrumental, “By the book”, “By my pen”, anything that implies what instrument or agent you used to do something. In that case, in the sentence “I went by car” the car would be in the instrumental. So those are the six cases.

With the cases, as a general overview, the concept is not difficult, but the specific explanations of why we use one case or another are extremely confusing. I’ll read from a Russian grammar book I have you will see what I mean. “The genitive case is used after words expressing measurement and quantity…”. That’s fine, “…but if it’s one of something it’s the nominative singular. If it’s two, three or four of something it’s the genitive singular. If it’s five or more it’s the genitive plural.”

Now, if that was the only rule you had to learn you could probably deal with it, but there’s a lot more. “The genitive case is used in a positive sense to express an indefinite incomplete quantity.” Okay, good for you. If you go on to the accusative, “The genitive case is normally used after negated verbs in the following instances: When the negation is intensified by another word; when a positive sentence is negated.” Of course, I don’t know what all that means. I have to look at the examples. “The dative is used to express the logical, blah, blah, blah.” I mean it just goes on and on.

The vast majority of prepositions don’t take the prepositional case, they take the genitive. Also, the same preposition will sometimes take the genitive and sometimes take the accusative. It’s extremely different. The endings, the tables, I’ve looked at those tables so many times. You can kind of half remember it for a day or two and then it’s gone, even if you understand the explanations after lots of examples.

I should say that I always use this grammar book as an example of how horrible grammar explanations can be. I have another book that I bought in Moscow which just has examples and with enough examples you can start to see it. However, what I’ve found is you just have to read and listen so often that certain phrases start to sound natural with their endings. It was much the same learning tones in Chinese. Trying to remember the individual tone for each character was very difficult, but with enough practice you eventually get better and better.

So, cases, that’s number one. You’re always, in my view, going to have trouble with the cases. Perhaps someone who attends a class and is studying it formally does better than I did. I was spending an hour a day listening, most of it in my car, or while exercising. It’s an interest thing, I’m not passing a test. However, I must say, given that I spent five years at an hour a day, a lot of people study it very seriously in class and don’t get as far along as I did and, besides which, I can understand so much.

This is another thing. When you don’t understand or you don’t know the cases it doesn’t prevent you from understanding, if you have the words. I learned all of the Russian vocabulary I know on LingQ. Some things remain a little bit fuzzy, but the important thing is that I can understand and enjoy the language. Learn about the country, the culture, even though you haven’t really nailed down the grammar.

What I tended to do was I listened to simple content to begin with and then I moved on to more difficult texts. Someone asked me on one of my YouTube videos, is it worthwhile listening to stuff you don’t understand? No, get stuff where you can access the text. If you can access the text, the transcript,import it onto LingQ as I did, save the words and phrases and you will eventually understand more and more of it.

Verbs of motion

The words “to go” in English appear like this “I go”, “I go tomorrow,” “I always go” etc. not in Russian. The verbs have tenses, change for tense and change for person, but that’s a minor problem.

Tips for learning Russian - www.lingq.com

The bigger problem is “you go”, which is multidirectional, “you go all the time”. If “you go and come back”, that’s one verb, but if you are “going there”, that’s another verb. If “you go on a means of transportation”, that’s another verb and that also has its multidirectional and unidirectional form and that’s just for “go”. Then there are “carry”, “come”, “fly” and “swim”, very difficult to get a handle on and to actually be able to reproduce. It doesn’t prevent you from understanding the language, but it is very difficult to nail it down when you’re speaking.

Aspect of verbs

I have read these definitions so many times. “If the action was completed, was supposed to be completed, might have been completed or was never going to be completed, then you use one form. But if, in fact, it was completed or might have been completed, except for the other exceptions, then you use this other form”. I don’t understand it. I’ve read them so many times. Here, again, it’s just exposure because you can’t be trying to go through all these logical explanations while you’re speaking. To my mind, you have to expose yourself to a lot of the language and then eventually start speaking a lot.

I could get into other issues that are different, but they’re minor. Like in Russian there isn’t only “where” but also “from where” and “to where”, and they are actually different words. Those are minor issues. The big problems in learning Russian are those three bugbears, cases, verbs of motion and aspects of verbs.

Now, the good news, Russian is fascinating. It’s a beautiful language. The country is fascinating. The culture and history are fascinating. The people who appear somewhat stoic are, in fact, very warm. They tend to speak their minds, say what they think and not worry too much about the details, but that’s what makes them so fun to be around. I would say, too, that in Russia there’s no compromise. I think that’s how they approach even artistic creation or sports. That’s why we see a lot of artistic creation in Russia, outstanding ballerinas, musicians and scientists. Certainly in hockey I find the Russians are just magicians. They’re artists and so they have a tendency to really commit themselves in one direction.

If you’re interested, check out the the article I wrote on understanding Russia!

15 December 2015

Want to Improve your English Fluency?

Want to be understood in English? New research shows you should focus on fluency over pronunciation.

Speaking fluently means your listener is more able to keep track of what you’re saying, then they have more time to figure out the sounds you are trying to produce.

In other words, your ability to put words together accurately, smoothly and fluently is much more important than trying to pronounce like a native.


So next time you’re talking in English remember to slow down, correct yourself, use what you know and be comfortable with making mistakes sometimes.

6 December 2015

How Not To Forget Foreign Languages


How do you not forget languages? The simple answer here is I don’t forget languages. I have not forgotten a language and I think there are several reasons for this. First of all, my method of learning is massive input. If you look at my statistics on Czech, I’ve probably read the equivalent of five, six, 10 books worth of Czech in the last nine months or so that I’ve read, listened to and saved words. So I’m exposing my brain to this massive deluge of content and this is building a solid base in the language.

If I were simply trying to study word lists or trying to memorize declension tables or learn grammar rules, I think those things you can forget. Those are the kinds of things you remember for a test, but very quickly forget. I’ve had the experience myself. I’ve studied say Russian or Czech and declension tables for nouns and I think I have them for a day or two and then they’re gone again. However, phrases that I’ve heard many times and words that I’ve seen many times, these combination of words with the noun in the right ending combined with a certain preposition, all of these things start to become part of strong patterns that are built in the brain and we don’t forget them.

So the first answer is if you don’t want to forget languages, learn them the hard way if you want. In other words, invest the time. Put the time into enough exposure to the language that you are building these sediments, this accumulated experience with the language in your brain.

The second thing is I am not bothered by the fact that when I start up in a language that I haven’t spoken for a while that I’m rusty. That doesn’t bother me at all. I think people who expect too much of themselves end up being frustrated, lose confidence, lose interest, whatever. If I haven’t spoken Swedish or Spanish or something for a while, I’m going to stumble when I start up again.

Sometimes people come at me on YouTube and oh, you don’t speak this language very well. You made this other mistake and stuff. Yeah, sure, whatever, it doesn’t bother me. I know that if I were then to be put in a situation for a day or two or three where I had to use that language regularly and I was once again listening to it all the time and everything that was in my brain was starting to revive that I would do fine. In fact, I’ve had the experience and I’ve mentioned this before.

If I leave a language and study some other language, when I come back to that first language that I left I’m actually better in the language because my overall language learning and language using capability has improved by learning other languages. The fact that I stumble out of the gate, so to speak, for the first day or two, so what, I have no particular expectations. I know that in any language, a second, third, fourth, fifth language that you speak, you’ll do better on some days than on other days. That’s what it is. Some days it’s tiring and some days it’s frustrating to try and look for words that you can’t find. You get annoyed and you would like to retreat back into your native language and other days you’re just walking on water and doing very well. So whichever happens to be the case that day is good enough for me. I don’t go in there with any particular expectations.

When I hear people say oh, yes, my father came over from the old country and he hasn’t spoken Polish or Italian in 50 years and now he can’t speak it, I kind of tend to take that with a grain of salt. I think if that particular father were set back into a Polish, Italian, Portuguese, Chinese, whatever environment, that that language would come back to him. If he had been exposed to it for 10, 20 or 30 years as a young person and then had been away from it for 30–40 years, when he or she goes back to that environment it will come right back very, very quickly.

So, to me, I don’t forget languages. How do I maintain them quickly if I need to get up to speed? Sometimes I’ll be asked to appear on a Mandarin Chinese television program here in Vancouver, I’ll get out some audio books or some CDs. I’ll listen to them and do a bit of reading. Give myself some exposure. One thing I certainly don’t look at is grammar books. If you want to get yourself back to speed you need more exposure. That’s not to say I don’t look at grammar books, I will occasionally look at grammar books, thumb through them, so to speak, but to get yourself back up to speed you need a lot of exposure. If you’ve been away from it for a while the first night out with native speakers you might stumble a bit, but you’re very quickly right back in the groove, at least that has been my experience.

25 November 2015

The Older Language Learner


I would like to talk about older language learners. When using Facebook, Twitter and now Google Plus I see posts from people I am following or that are following me. Recently I saw a post there from someone saying, I want to do some research on the problems of older language learners and see what I can do to help them. So I posted a comment and said, what do you consider to be an older language learner and he answered over 40. So I said, what makes you think that people over 40 have particular problems in language learning. What do you think these problems might be? The answer was well, you know, they might develop hearing loss or something of that nature.

I must say, I was completely taken aback by this comment. I don’t know that over 40 qualifies as old, but I assume that over 60 does. That’s me. I think I’m a better language learner now than I was when I was 16. All the evidence I’ve seen in the reading I’ve done is that our cognitive abilities don’t really start to decline until well past the mid 70s. If we work hard at maintaining these cognitive abilities by keeping our minds active, I’m sure that our cognitive abilities and our ability to create new neurons and neural networks remain quite strong.

Now, I can’t compare the ability of the average 60-year-old with the average 15-year-old, but everything I’ve seen suggests to me that obviously a child before the age of say 10 seems to have a major advantage in language learning and there are probably a number of reasons. I think as a very young child, of course, the brain is still flexible enough. The brain hasn’t sort of formed around one language so it’s much more open to new languages because, necessarily, the brain has to form patterns. It has to form rules for itself so it can deal with all the experiences and the phenomena that it’s confronted with.

The positive side of this is that as we grow older we have more patterns in place. We have more experience to draw on. We have more wisdom, in a sense. We’ve experienced more things, but we perhaps become less open to new things. I think that’s what happens in language learning, we’re open to any language. When we’re born, we could learn any language as a native language and as we develop therefore these sets of patterns to deal with our native language. We perhaps become less open to new languages. I think young people who study two or three languages have a big advantage, but once you pass the age of 10 or so I think the brain is more or less formed, from what I’ve read.

By the way, the majority of teens are not that interested in language learning and don’t do well, the majority that I’ve seen at least in Canada. On the other hand, for example at LingQ and on the recent hangouts that I’ve been conducting in Google Plus, we’ve had some young people show up who are extremely good. I think some of the more enthusiastic so-called polyglots (people learning different languages) probably are younger, but it’s their enthusiasm and their willingness to put in the time and the effort and the fact that they aren’t resisting the language that leads to their success.

These are the sort of attitudinal factors that enable them to be successful and there’s no reason why an older person can’t have the same attitude. I like to feel that when I study a language I am totally enthusiastic about the language. I put in the time necessary. I don’t resist the language. I don’t question why do they say it this way and wouldn’t it be better if they said it the way we say it in our language, none of these things. I think, to some extent, it may be true that some people do this, but I think young people do this, as well.

As for hearing loss, amongst my friends I don’t know many who suffer from this. Yeah, you do lose the sort of high-frequency range of hearing, but not to the point where it would affect your ability to hear the language. Now, there are people with hearing aides who have develop significant hearing loss. I have a very good friend who’s 83 and has a hearing aide. He doesn’t hear very well, but he’s very enthusiastic learning Spanish and having a great time.

Old people aren’t in any way disadvantaged. Older people, whether over 40 as this person had it or over 60, are not handicapped people. In terms of their cognitive abilities, they’re just as good as younger people if they have the same attitude. If they have the attitude of not resisting the language, being caught up in the excitement of learning a new language, not resisting the language, if they can visualize themselves speaking that other language, if they have these attitudes they can be just as good as anyone else.

Again, I was at a meetup the other evening here in Vancouver. It was styled as a meetup of language enthusiasts and linguists and someone made the statement, “We all know that our ability to learn a language declines with age. The older we get, the harder it is to learn. “

I said, “No, I’m sorry, that’s not been my experience.”

Their response was, “Well, I mean you can’t say that. Everybody knows the older you get, the harder it is to learn a language.”


There are a lot of people who glibly toss these ideas around and, unfortunately, I think it influences some people who are sort of past their 30s. They think they can’t learn a language anymore. Nothing could be further from the truth.

It’s not just learning languages. If I look at my wife, for example, who’s so enthusiastic about her piano she plays two-three hours a day. She doesn’t have a teacher, but she’s improving by leaps and bounds. I mean we can learn anything we want at any age, as long as we have the attitude of a learner. The attitude of a learner is someone who is independent, who doesn’t expect someone else to teach them or to give it to them, who’s enthusiastic, who’s confident and who is determined to get there and, also, someone who isn’t too concerned about comparing themselves to other people.

Now, my wife plays the piano, she doesn’t care whether she’s better than someone else. I know very well that there are all kinds of polyglots on the Internet that are better than I am in a number of languages, if not all. That doesn’t diminish my enjoyment one little bit. Every one of us as we learn a language, whatever our age and whatever our opportunities to speak and so forth, can all enjoy the progress we’re making. That’s all we need to achieve that little bit of progress that gives us a sense of satisfaction. We don’t have to compare ourselves to anyone else.

Unfortunately, I think there is a bit of a prejudice and one that works to the disadvantage of some people who give up on the possibility that they could learn one, two or more languages past their teens. I can assure you, I learned Czech from basically a standing start, except that I had learned Russian in the previous year. I would never have considered that possible when I was in my 20s; you know, putting in an hour or an hour and a half or so, eventually two hours a day. The reason is, again, as we’re older and as we’ve done these things, we get better at doing them. We know how to do them. Again, the brain develops these patterns, these routines so that it’s no longer a new phenomenon.

Someone who has never learned a second language or has only had school exposure to French or grew up in China and learned English for 10 years and can’t speak English, I mean they have no sense of what it’s like to transform themselves into a speaker of a second language. They have an attitude. They’re defeated before they start. But that’s the attitude, that’s not the age. If they accept the fact that they can learn, that it’s a gradual process and you have to do it with enthusiasm and determination, I don’t see any difference between a 16-year-old and a 66-year-old.

13 November 2015

Can you get “brain freeze” when speaking a new language? How would you go about learning Farsi? How do you use Assimil?


Can you get “brain freeze” when speaking a new language?

In other words, sometimes we know the word, we know what we want to say, but we just can’t remember the word. We can’t say it and the more we try to remember it, of course, the more we ensure that we won’t be able to remember it. It happens to all of us. It happens to me at my age. Sometimes I think it’s because I’m older now, but I think it happened to me when I was younger, as well. The more pressure we put on ourselves, if we’re at a party and someone comes in and we’re trying to remember that person’s name, the harder we try to remember the name, the harder it is to remember.

If I find that I can’t think of a word or I can’t express what I want to express, I’ll talk about something else. I’ll move into a direction where I have the words and gradually then come back to what I wanted to say. In any case, I don’t let it upset me because it’s normal. The more confident and comfortable we are, the less pressure we put on ourselves, the less likely it is to occur.

How would you go about learning Farsi?

Well, when I started learning Romanian there were no resources, so I went on the Internet, I wrote up 200 sentences in English and I asked someone to translate these into Romanian and record them for me. I paid them for that and the resulting lessons were imported into LingQ. So if there are no Farsi resources, you may have to create your own.

How do you use Assimil?

A lot of people like Assimil. Personally, to me it’s just another beginner book like Teach Yourself or Colloquial. What I get out of it is strictly the lessons, the content. I listen, I read. I used it for Russian. I started using the Korean one and I found it particularly uninteresting. The Russian Assimil has actually some interesting content and to that extent is better.

What I don’t like about Assimil is that they don’t give you the glossary, in other words, the translations of the new words. They give you a full translation, which I find very distracting. I find it distracting to read in the target language and then go reading through English to see the particular word I’m looking for. So I don’t use Assimil a lot, but I know that a lot of people do like Assimil.

9 November 2015

How Many Words Do We Need to Speak a Language?

How Many Words...

It is tempting to believe that we can just acquire a small number of very useful words, and sort of get a jump start in a language. I have never found that to be the case. Even learning “where”, “when” “why” etc. does not help a lot, in my experience, because it simply takes a long time to get used to using these words, or even remembering them. We need to be exposed to them often in order to get used to them and to a new language.

It is not difficult to get a list of the most “useful” words in a language. You can look them up, or you can just type them out in your own language and submit them to google translate. I doubt if that will help much, at least it does not in my case. You need to see and hear them, over and over, in meaningful contexts.

That is why I prefer to focus on finding content, interesting content, to listen to and read. It starts with easier, perhaps less interesting content, but as soon as possible I move on to more challenging but more interesting content.

LingQ enables me to do this. I can look up word and phrases that I don’t understand. I can save these words and phrases for occasional review. The most useful words, the highest frequency words, keep on appearing in the content I am reading and listening to. Almost like magic, in an order that I cannot control, they become part of me. First I understand them and then I start to remember them.

There are also less frequently used words in my reading and listening, words that need in order to understand what I am reading or listening to. I save them as well in LingQ but I ignore them. They are in my database and in my brain somewhere, but will probably not be activated for quite some time. Eventually some of them show up often enough that I learn them. Some of them stick in my brain for reasons that I can’t control.

I create lots of LingQs, in other words save lots of words and phrases to my database at LingQ. I do this not only for words I do not know, but also of common little words that work differently in the new language, like “meu” or “minha” in Portuguese versus “mi” in Spanish. Some of these common words I may tag for different categories to help me review them if I have the time.

My experience tells me that there is not a short cut. I just need to continue enjoying immersing myself in the language and learning about new things via the language. In time I will get the opportunity to speak, and the more I speak, the more I will activate the vocabulary that I have naturally acquire in this manner.

I know that in order to have meaningful conversations, I will need to understand lots of words, not just the most common hundred or so. If I don’t have a large enough vocabulary, I will be lost in my attempts to engage people in conversations. If I have a large passive vocabulary, I will find that all kinds of words that I have never used before just rush to my brain and come out of my mouth.

That is what I am now doing for Polish. After two months of input activity, I have started speaking, and am surprising both myself and my Polish natives speaker counterparts with what I am able to express. I have made no special attempts to learn the most common words of Polish.

1 November 2015

Language Learning is Like Falling in Love


Recently, I had to give a short talk in Japanese to about 30 members of the Japan-Canada Chamber of Commerce. I am a Director of this Chamber, which consists mostly of recent Japanese immigrants to Canada who are involved in their own businesses here. Here is what I said in Japanese.

Language learning is like falling in love. In fact you have to be in love to learn a language well. I mean in love with the language. You have to have a love affair with the language. You do not have to marry the language. You can have an affair and then move on to another language after a period of time. But while you are learning the language you have to be in love with it. And you will learn faster if you are faithful to the language while you are studying it.

Just as when you are in love, you want to and need to spend as much time as possible with the object of your love. You want to hear its voice and read its thoughts. You want to learn more about it, the many words and phrases that it uses to express itself. You think of the language wherever you are. You start to observe the object of your love closely. You notice all the little things it does, you become familiar with its peculiar behaviour patterns. You breathe it. You hear its voice. You feel it. You get to know it better and better, naturally.

Just as in a love affair, there are things about the object of your love that you do not like. You ignore these. You only think about the things that you love. You do not question the object of your love. You just accept it. You do not ask why. You do not ask why it behaves a certain way. You do not seek to understand the secrets to its structure. You just want to be with it, and even to imitate it, the highest form of appreciation.


Loving a language is a one-sided love affair. You love the language. It does not love you back. But the good thing is that it is not jealous of you, of your other previous love affairs. It really does not care if you carry on another love affair at the same time. But, as with people, doing so can create problems…..The language does not criticize you. You can use it however you want, as long as you enjoy yourself.

You are not jealous of other people who love the language you love. In fact you like to meet people who love the language you love. It is a lot less bothersome to love a language than to love a person, Because the love of the language is its own reward. You do not care what the language thinks of you. You are enjoying your affair with the language and do not expect anything in return. As long as you have that relationship, you will learn and improve in the language.

If you just use a language without loving it, you will not improve. If the goal is only to get a better job, or to pass a test, you will not improve. People are the same way. You cannot have a love affair with someone just to get a better job, although……….

This has been my approach. So when I learn a language I spend most of my initial time just listening and reading and building up my words and phrases. I just want to get to know the language, enjoy its personality and get used to it. I do not want anyone to question me, or explain my love to me. I do not want to speak in the language before I have really gotten to know the language, because I know that I will not do justice to my love. I only speak in the language when I want to, when I am ready.

I practice what is known as the “silent period” approach to language learning. Right now I am learning Russian and have been doing so for one year. I read and listen to many different kinds of content, including simple stories, podcasts and Tolstoy. I love it. I do not yet speak Russian. I could if I wanted to. I have been using the latest version of our language learning system, LingQ, which enables people to learn any language they want.

If any of you are interested in having a love affair with a language, read more on my blog and subscribe to my YouTube channel to hear this podcast and more!
You can also improve your English, Spanish, Italian and 11 other languages today! Visit LingQ.com

27 October 2015

What is Your Motivation to Learn New Languages?


Hi there. Steve Kaufmann here again, answering some of the questions that you have written on my YouTube channel. I apologize for this light shinning of my gray hair or white hair, but if I don’t put the light on then it’s too dark in here. Hopefully, that doesn’t disturb you. The first question was:

What is your motivation to learn new languages?

This came from a person in Spain. Another person asked something about, why are you learning Ukrainian, I think? The motivation can be anything. Right now, the motivation to learn Polish is because I speak other Slavic languages or have learnt them and studied them, so I’m curious to see how Polish works. And, of course, every time you learn a new language you learn so much about the country.

People ask me, what about Arabic or Hebrew? Yes, I’m motivated to learn those, particularly Arabic because there’s so much history behind that language and because so many people in the world speak it. So a lot of my motivation is cultural, interest in the country. I want to learn about different people and different cultures in different parts of the world.

The next question was:

How do you keep a language fresh in your mind? How do you not lose vocabulary?

In my experience, if I learn a language through massive listening and reading, massive exposure to the language, I tend not to lose it, but the way I refresh it is that I just do more of the same, listening and reading. Now that I have LingQ it’s particularly good. I can go in and do some Chinese, for example. In fact, I think the person who asked this question was afraid they were losing their Chinese vocabulary. I’ll go through and maybe find something on the Internet or I might just get an audio book. I’ll find the eBook, bring it in and listen and then read and save words that I need. I find that that very quickly refreshes my grasp of that language.

The next question was:

How do you study grammar? Someone specifically asked about all of the – in German. How do I study it?

Well, historically, what I did was I would do a lot of listening and reading and occasionally refer to grammar explanations in the hope that that helped me notice it and, therefore, get used to it. Now I’m kind of interested in this whole approach that I’ve mentioned before, Piotr’s 100 stories where he tells the same story and then asks so many different questions that you are, in fact, reviewing the different structures using very limited vocabulary covering the same ground over and over again with different questions and different answers. That may just be more efficient than trying to remember tables, which I’ve always found very difficult to do.

Another person asks:

How do you find stuff to write about?

It’s difficult. If you’re in a school or in a classroom you are assigned writing. If you have to motivate yourself to write it’s more difficult. What you can try doing is something that Luca does, Luca, who is a very accomplished polyglot. He transfers from the target language into his own language and then back into the target language. So you grab a sentence of something you’re reading, translate it back into your own language and then try to write it again in the target language.

Another person asked:

Polyglots, they claim to speak many languages, but how many languages can they really speak well?

Well, if you listen to Richard Simcott or Luca, to name two specifically, I would say they speak extremely well in at least half a dozen languages. In my own case, certainly it’s true that my strongest three or four are stronger, the next three are okay and as you work your way down then I don’t speak them so well. I think, inevitably, anyone who is a polyglot is going to have a handful of languages that they speak very well, another handful that they speak okay and others that they don’t speak so well. However, it’s possible that there are polyglots out there who devote more time to it and who can actually maintain a high level in more than a handful of languages.

A question I get all the time is:

How do you spend your time? How much time do you spend?

I’m down here in Palm Springs now. We’re down here because my wife likes to play golf. I prefer to play hockey in the winter. If it were me, I would still be up in Vancouver. So we play golf most days and then there are other chores and stuff, but I think I put in an hour or two a day with my language. A good hour of that is listening.

I recently had to go to three stores to buy stuff. I went to Home Depot and then I went to Walmart and Target buying different things for the house here and the whole time I’m in the car I’m listening. I also sat down with my iPad and did some of Piotr’s stories for a good half hour. I also in the evening will sometimes go through my Polish history creating links. When I do the dishes and clean up I’m listening. So I think I get in an hour to two hours a day and that’s how I manage to do it, by combining it with other activities.

Am I interested in Dutch?

Sure. We have Dutch at LingQ, but the difficulty is I’m interested in Dutch, I’m interested in Arabic and I’m interested in Turkish. I can only do one at a time, so one day maybe. I have done some lessons of Dutch at LingQ and it doesn’t strike me as being very difficult.

The question was:

What do you find difficult with Korean?

I’ve gone over this before. The difficulty is finding interesting content that’s not too difficult. When you look in the online dictionary, it seems that a lot of words mean the same thing. Of course it’s written in Hangul, it’s not written in the Latin alphabet. It always makes it a little more difficult when you’re reading in an alphabet or a writing system that you haven’t been using all your life. So those are some of things. I don’t really know why. I have just found Korean to be difficult, but I am continuing.

Another question was from a person studying Chinese:

Should I learn to write from the beginning?

Absolutely, especially the hiragana and katakana. I recommend for Asian languages, learn to write the characters, if they have characters.

Finally, there was a question:

How do I develop my academic English or my ability to write in an academic way?

To me, there’s no difference between say English, Business English, Academic English, any other kind of English. You have to go and find interesting content on the kinds of subjects that you want to develop an ability to write and speak in. So Academic English, if your field is medicine, chemistry or physics you go find on the Internet or whatever source you have, content. Ideally, both audio and text if you can find it and you just read lots of that. I would recommend doing it at LingQ where you can save key phrases, the kind of phrasing that people in your field are using and you just acquire the vocabulary and the phrasing of people in that field.

There’s nothing special about Academic English versus Business English or any other kind of specialized jargon and specialized terminology. You just have to acquire it and make it, first of all, part of vocabulary that you understand and, ultimately, vocabulary that you can use.

So there you have it. I apologize for the light. One thing I am going to talk about in my next video is Mark Zuckerberg, who made a 20-minute presentation in Chinese in Beijing. I was quite impressed and I’m going to give him suggestions on what he could do to be even better, but that will be in the next video.

Thank you for listening, bye for now.

26 October 2015

Should you try to learn two languages at once?

should you learn two languages at once? - steve kaufmann

Should you learn two languages at once?

Let’s talk about the common question, “Can I learn two languages at once?” or, “Should I learn multiple languages at once?”

I am asked this question regularly from my YouTube viewers. Pelle from Sweden, if I remember correctly, is studying Russian, and hasn’t been at it very long, but would also like to start studying German. So he asked what do I think, would recommend it or not.

(Check out my Tips for learning Russian and Tips for Learning German)

Well, I have a number of thoughts on the subject.

First of all, a person who is learning one language and wants to learn another language or even a third language is something that I fully understand and fully endorse. Once we discover the pleasure of learning a language, of discovering a language, even before we’re able to speak it the pleasure of exploring a new world of different culture, different history, different ways of expressing things, is very, very rewarding, enchanting, pleasurable and so now we want to explore some other language.

It is true that once we have mastered or become relatively good at communicating in a new language, we feel more confident and we’re better able then to learn a third, a fourth and a fifth language. In fact, I guess in Europe it’s more common that people speak two, three or four languages because there are so many different languages in Europe in a relatively limited area. It’s far less common in North America.

If I take the example of Canada, kids who study French in school mostly don’t end up speaking French, so even learning one language is a major achievement. All kinds of people I meet here in Vancouver say “wow, Steve, you speak all those languages? I would love to learn French or Spanish or something.” Of course, they don’t do much about it or they might have taken a course and have given up. So here in North America we have all kinds of people who can’t even speak one foreign language, but in Europe speaking several languages is quite common.

I don’t think it takes any special talent to learn two languages at once. I mean some people may do better than others, but everyone can do it. Some may pronounce better, some may have a larger vocabulary, different people have different interests, but everyone is capable of doing it and it’s a rewarding thing to do for everyone so I encourage it.

I’ve often said that the way French is taught here in Canada makes no sense because we’re teaching kids how to say certain basic things in French, hopefully correctly, when in fact the kids know that they will probably never have a chance to use French and certainly not in those specific scenarios that they like to teach in school. I’ve often felt that language instruction in our schools should be more a matter of discovery, learning to understand, building up vocabulary, exploring languages, even more than one language.

So exploring languages, even if it’s only sort of passively in order to understand the language and understand more about the countries, to learn about the countries through the language, learn about their history and culture, all that stuff is great, multiple languages, great. That’s part one of my answer.

Part two of my answer is while I know that there are some polyglots — and I’ve seen their videos — who can learn two languages at once or study two, three, four, five languages simultaneously, I prefer not to. So that suggests that there are some people who can learn two languages at once and some people who can’t. So some people like doing it and others don’t. I prefer to concentrate on one language because I find it so absorbing studying one language. It ties me up. I’m committed. I just can’t get enough of the language.

I know from experience that the more intensive, the greater degree of concentration on that language, the better I will do. In other words, I spent five years learning Russian an hour a day. I spent nine months learning Chinese seven hours a day. I did a better job on Chinese. The more intensive the experience, the better you’re going to learn, the more often you’re going to meet the same words again, the more your brain is going to get. It’s sort of that greater heat of intensity that is helping the brain absorb the new language, so my preference is always for a high degree of concentration.

I also like to explore, so at LingQ I’ll go and have a look at Dutch and discover that I can decipher quite a few of the Dutch lessons or Polish, which is a little similar to Czech. So I’ll do a little bit of exploring, but I won’t spend much time because learning another language is a lot of work. So it’s one thing to go and explore. I’ve explored Arabic, I’ve explored Turkish, all at LingQ, but it’s another to take on learning two languages at once. I know that if I were to engage in committing myself to learn any of those languages it would be a lot of work, a full-time job.

You can’t have two full-time jobs. So if my full-time job is Czech, the Czech language, then I’m going to be totally on to Czech. I might have 20% to spend on languages that I already speak to a fairly good level, so with my Czech I would occasionally listen to Russian so that I could maintain my Russian. When I went to learn Portuguese, even though I spoke Spanish and the vocabulary is 85-95% the same, it wasn’t as easy as I thought. It was difficult and I bought a book, for example, How Spanish Words Convert into Portuguese. Well, it’s not a matter of reading a list here and this Spanish word becomes this in Portuguese. No sooner have you gone through the list that you’ve forgotten it.

should you be learning two languages at once? - steve kaufmann

If you want to learn two languages at once you have to create habits in the brain and to create these habits, the greater the intensity of the exposure, of the workout, in my view the sooner you’re going to get a real good control of that language, even for relatively similar languages like Spanish and Portuguese, not to mention difficult languages or languages that are quite different from each other like Russian and German. What you can do is focus on one language for six months maybe 80% and then 20% exploring the other language. Then you can turn it around and go 80% on language two, say German in the case of our friend from Sweden, than just a little 20% on Russian and you can flip flop back and forth if you want.

I tend to get totally absorbed. If I look back at some situations that have occurred to me, I spent a year on Czech leading up to going to Prague. And, of course, eventually to be good at a language you have to speak a lot. You build up your potential through a lot of intensive listening and reading. You build up your familiarity with the language. You build up your vocabulary. You’re not too concerned about grammar; although, you refer to it from time to time because it helps you notice things. Then you have to start speaking and when you speak not only do you improve your ability to speak, but you also improve your ability to notice because you remember and you notice those things that you weren’t able to do when you were speaking and so you step up your speaking. So it’s all intense work.

In my case with Czech, it led up to me going to the Czech Republic and I spent five days there in Prague speaking seven-eight hours of Czech a day and I was very happy with what I had achieved. Then I said okay, now I’m going to work on Korean. So I worked on Korean for four or five months, not quite as intensely. Then I had a business trip to Romania, so I spent two months working on Romanian and I got the Romanian up to a level where I could kind of communicate and speak and talk about a variety of subjects and understand newscasts and so forth. Bear in mind that Romanian is 70% similar vocabulary to Italian.

When I was in the midst of talking to all these Romanians, there was a fellow there who was Czech and so I wanted to speak to him in Czech. I couldn’t find one word, nothing, gone, whoosh. Even though my Romanian is nowhere near as good as my Czech, because I had been focusing on Romanian my Czech was gone. Now, that would not happen to stronger languages like Japanese, even German, even Russian, but for Czech, which was not yet at that level where it was solidly anchored, I couldn’t speak a word.

Now because I visited the Czech Republic and Slovakia over Christmas and New Year with my son and his family who live in England, I’m back on Czech. Well, my Romanian is gone. I can’t say anything in Romanian. I understand, I can read and it wouldn’t take me a day or two to get back onto it. What I’m trying to say is that there is real advantage in focusing very intensively.

You can always revive your languages. I do this regularly, you go back to them. If you were to spend six months or a year on Russian, which is a full-time job, then you were to spend six months on German, during that six-month period you might want to spend 20% of your time just keeping the Russian on the back burner simmering there so you don’t fall back too far.

I never worry about what I might have forgotten or lost in Korean, Romanian or Czech because I know that in a day or two I’ve gotten it back, or even less. But on the fly like that, bingo, today you say you speak language X, go for it. I can do that in most of my languages, but I can’t do it in Czech, Romanian, Korean and so forth.

So, to summarize, by all means study more than one language, I think it’s a good thing. I think that our language instruction in our schools should be more of an exploration, discover more languages and cultures through language and stuff like that, rather than getting people to speak correctly. Obviously, where the language is required for work and that’s typically the case with English, that’s not the correct strategy there. You have to focus on enabling people to communicate.

So, yes, if you want to learn two languages at once that’s ok. Insofar as what I like to do when I study languages, I like to concentrate on one at a time, but that is me. I know there are other excellent polyglots who have a different approach with advice that’s different from mine.

To learn languages like I do, check out LingQ.com. Also Subscribe to my YouTube channel for more tips and motivation for language learning!

19 October 2015

How Long Should it Take to Learn a Language?

how long does it take to learn a language?

How Long Should it Take to Learn a Language?

Language learning depends mostly on three factors: the attitude of the learner, the time available, and the learner’s attentiveness to the language. If we assume a positive attitude and reasonable and growing attentiveness to the language on the part of the learner, how much time should it take to learn a language?

FSI, the US Foreign Service Institute, divides languages into groups of difficulty for speakers of English:

  • Group 1: French, German, Indonesian, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Swahili
  • Group 2: Bulgarian, Burmese, Greek, Hindi, Persian, Urdu
  • Group 3: Amharic, Cambodian, Czech, Finnish, Hebrew, Hungarian, Lao, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese
  • Group 4: Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean

FSI has 5 levels of proficiency:

  1. Elementary proficiency. The person is able to satisfy routine travel needs and minimum courtesy requirements.
  2. Limited working proficiency. The person is able to satisfy routine social demands and limited work requirements.
  3. Minimum professional proficiency. The person can speak the language with sufficient structural accuracy and vocabulary to participate effectively in most formal and informal conversations on practical, social, and professional topics.
  4. Full professional proficiency. The person uses the language fluently and accurately on all levels normally pertinent to professional needs.
  5. Native or bilingual proficiency. The person has speaking proficiency equivalent to that of an educated native speaker.

On this scale, I would call 2 above basic conversational fluency.

FSI research indicates that it takes 480 hours to reach basic fluency in group 1 languages, and 720 hours for group 2-4 languages.

If we are able to put in 10 hours a day to learn a language, then basic fluency in the easy languages should take 48 days, and for difficult languages 72 days. Accounting for days off, this equates to two months or three months time. If you only put in five hours a day, it will take twice as long.

how long does it take to learn a language?
Is ten hours a day reasonable to learn a language? It could be. Here is a sample day.

8-12: Alternate listening, reading and vocabulary review using LingQ, Anki or some other system.

12-2: Rest, exercise, lunch, while listening to the language.

2-3: Grammar review

3-4: Write

4-5: Talk via skype or with locals if in the country

5-7: Rest

7-10: Relaxation in the language, movies, songs, or going out with friends in the language. depending on availability.

To some extent the language needs time to gestate and often things we study today do not click in for months. On the other hand, intensity has its own benefits. I have no doubt that someone following this intense program, or something similar, would achieve basic conversational fluency in two months for easy languages, and three months for difficult languages.

To go from level 2 to level 4, or full professional fluency would take quite a bit longer, perhaps twice as long.